Thinking Differently Together - First 1,000 Days Of Life

children born in New South Wales between 2000-2008, and followed their health until 2013. They found: • Infants who experienced an instrumental birth following induction or augmentation had the highest risk of jaundice and feeding problems. • Infants born by caesarean section had higher rates of hypothermia following birth. • Children born by emergency caesarean section had the highest rates of metabolic disorders in later years. • Odds of respiratory infections, metabolic disorder and eczema were highest amongst children who experienced any form of birth intervention. Ethnicity and deprivation Research demonstrates that women who are vulnerable, or from areas of deprivation suffer worse clinical outcomes during and after pregnancy. Death in pregnancy is more likely in Black and Asian women, and minority ethnic families also experience higher rates of stillbirth and infant mortality (under 1 year old). Black and Asian women have a higher risk of dying in pregnancy White women 7/100,000 Asian women 2x 12/100,000 Mixed ethnicity women 2x 15/100,000 Black women 4x 32/100,000 Women living in less affluent areas have a higher risk of dying during or after pregnancy Least deprived 20% 8/100,000 Most deprived 20% 2x 14/100,000 Source: MBRRACE-UK - Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care 2021 In 2019 in England and Wales, rates of stillbirth per 1,000 births were: Black Asian White 7.1 5.1 3.4 In the same period, rates of infant mortality per 1,000 births were: Black Asian White 6.4 5.5 3.0 Source: ONS Other factors In addition to all the issues above, the constellation of biases that contribute to women’s deaths in pregnancy or up to a year afterwards also includes physical and mental health problems, unemployment, domestic abuse, being known to social services, being born outside the UK or a non-UK citizen, age, delayed ante-natal care, and previous pregnancy problems. Thrombosis and thromboembolism are the leading causes of direct death. Thinking Differently Together | 8

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